On August 5th, 1911, a conference took place in Bredon’s Norton, Worcestershire, attended by Metropolitan Gerassimos Messarra, Archbishop of Beirut, Legate of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch, Archbishop Mathew and others. After a long and full discussion, the faith of the Old Roman Catholic Church under Archbishop Mathew was considered in full accord with that of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Archbishop Mathew was then solemnly received by Mgr Messarra on behalf of Gregory IV (Haddad) and the Old Roman Catholic Church into union with the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch as an autocephalous jurisdiction of the Holy Synod. On February 26th, 1912, His Holiness, Photius, Pope and Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria also accepted and recognised this union.
Colleague and brother in Jesus Christ, with open arms in the love of the Savior, I receive you among us, and I accept your oath of fidelity to His Beatitude the Orthodox Patriarch and his Holy Synod of Antioch, since those who hold our Faith and wish to be united with us have never been prevented from joining us.
Praying God to bless you, and not only you but all those who come to us with you, we bless you in the name of His Beatitude the Patriarch and of the Holy Synod of Antioch.
Your Colleague and Brother in Jesus Christ,
Prince Archbishop and Metropolitan,
Orthodox Church of Beyrout
5th Aug. 1911”
The Church of Antioch was established by the Apostles Paul and Barnabas in 42 A.D., with St. Peter serving for the next eight years as its first prelate. The Church of Antioch is one of the five ancient Patriarchates of the Christian Church, along with Alexandria, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Rome. Many of the great saints of the Church, including St. Ignatius and St. John Chrysostom, have come from Antioch. The Patriarchate has endured despite centuries of oppression, and today shepherds over half a million Christians in Syria, Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East along with communities throughout the Americas, Australia and Europe.
“To Monseigneur ARNOLD HARRIS MATHEW,
ARCHBISHOP AND METROPOLITAN (of the Catholic
Church of England) OF LONDON, EARL OF LANDAFF,
Health and Salvation in Our Lord!
We are very happy to announce to you that We have thanked God our Saviour for your categorical declarations that you regard the Pope of Rome as the first of the Patriarchs of Christianity, without, however, recognising him greater rights than the Orthodox Church acknowledges, that you omit the Filioque clause, and that you do not accept money for celebrating Masses.
We agree with you as to the observance of your autonomy, and of the Latin Rite in actual use, so long and so far as they agree with the Holy Dogmas and with the canonical ordinances of the Seven Oecumenical Synods, which form the basis of the Orthodox Faith. On this basis we shall, with pleasure, facilitate arrangements with you, or with your Emissaries, this basis having no other foundation than that which has been laid, Who is Jesus Christ; and with a good heart and in joy We glorify the Divine Grace and Power.
We embrace you and We enfold you in Our arms in fraternal love in one only Saviour, in one only Faith, in one only Baptism, in one only God and Father of all, Who is above all and through all and in us all.
And may our Father in Heaven, the God of peace, Who has raised from the dead the great Pastor of the Sheep, our Saviour Jesus, accomplish in you, in every fashion, all good works in accordance with His will. May He perform in us that which is pleasing to Him through Jesus Christ, to Whom be the glory for ever and ever. And may we be made perfect in Jesus Christ. Amen.
ALEXANDRIA, the 13-26 February 1912.
The Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa is the second ranking Orthodox See (after the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople) and extends its ecclesiastical jurisdiction to all the countries of the African continent. Christianity made its way to Alexandria at a very early date, via the Jews of the Diaspora. However, it is St Mark the Evangelist who is regarded both by tradition and in the light of various written sources as the founder of the church in Egypt and, indeed, throughout the continent of Africa. St Mark arrived in Egypt in 43 AD and met a martyr’s death on his second visit to Alexandria.
All commentators are agreed that neither of these Unions were ever rescinded.
1. The Way of Salvation. Eternal Salvation is promised to mankind only through the merits of our Savior Jesus Christ, and upon condition of obedience to the teaching of the Gospel, which requires Faith, Hope and Charity, and the due observance of the ordinances of the Orthodox and Catholic Religion.
2. Faith, Hope and Charity. Faith is a virtue infused by God, whereby one accepts, and believes without doubting, whatever God has revealed in the Church concerning true Religion.
Hope is a virtue infused by God, and following upon Faith; by it one puts their entire trust and confidence in the goodness and mercy of God, through Jesus Christ, and looks for the fulfillment of the Divine promises made to those who obey the Gospel.
Charity is a virtue infused by God, and likewise consequent upon Faith, wherby one, loving God above all things for His own sake, and their neighbor as oneself for God’s sake, yields up one will to a joyful obedience to the revealed will of God in the Church.
3. The Church. God has established the Holy Catholic Church upon earth to be the pillar and ground of the revealed Truth; and has committed to her the guardianship of the Holy Scriptures and of Holy Tradition, and the power of binding and loosing.
4. The Creed. The Catholic Church has set forth the principal Doctrines of the Christian Faith in twelve articles of the Creed, as follows:
I. I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;
II. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all Ages, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten not made, of one substance with the he Father, by Whom all things were made;
III. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was Incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made Man;
IV. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, He suffered and was buried;
V. And the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures;
VI. And ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;
VII. And He shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end;
VIII. And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets;
IX. And in One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church;
X. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins;
XI. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead;
XII. And the Life of the world to come. Amen.
This sacred Creed is sufficient for the establishment of the Truth, inasmuch as it explicitly teaches the perfect Doctrine of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
5. The Sacraments. The fundamental ordinances of the Gospel, instituted by Jesus Christ as special means of conveying Divine Grace and influence to the souls of men, which are commonly called Mysteries or Sacraments, are Seven in number, namely Baptism, Confirmation, the Holy Eucharist, Holy Orders, Matrimony, Penance, and Unction.
Holy Baptism is the first Sacrament of the Gospel, administered by threefold immersion in, or affusion with, water with the words, “I baptize thee (you) in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” It admits the recipient into the Church, bestows upon them the forgiveness of sins, original and actual, through the Blood of Christ, and causes in them a spiritual change called Regeneration. Without valid Baptism no other Sacrament can be validly received.
Holy Confirmation or Chrismation is a Sacrament in which the baptized person, on being anointed with Chrism consecrated by the Bishops of the Church, with the imposition of hands, receive the seven-fold gifts of the Holy Spirit to strengthen them in the grace which they received at Baptism, making them a strong and perfect Christian and a good soldier of Christ.
The Holy Eucharist is a Sacrament in which, under the appearance of Bread and Wine, the real and actual Body and Blood of Christ are given and received for the remission of sins, the increase of Divine grace, and the reward of everlasting Life. After the prayer of Invocation of the Holy Spirit in the Liturgy, the bread and wine are entirely converted into the Living Body and Blood of Christ by an actual change of being to which change the philosophical terms of Transubstantiation and Transmutation are rightly applied. The celebration of this Mystery or Sacrament, commonly called the Mass, constitutes the chief act of Christian worship, being a sacrificial Memorial or re-Presentation of our Lord’s death. It is not a repetition of the Sacrifice offered once for all upon Calvary, but is a perpetuation of that Sacrifice by the Church on earth, as our Lord also perpetually offers it in heaven. It is a true and propitiatory Sacrifice, which is offered alike for the living and for the departed.
Holy Orders is a Sacrament in which the Holy Spirit, through the laying-on of hands of Bishops, consecrates and ordains the pastors and ministers chosen to serve in the Church, and imparts to them special grace to administer the Sacraments, to forgive sins, and to feed the flock of Christ.
Holy Matrimony is a Sacrament in which the voluntary union of husband and wife is sanctified to become an image of the union between Christ and His Church; and grace is imparted to them to fulfill the duties of their estate and its great responsibilities, both to each other and to their children.
Holy Penance is a Sacrament in which the Holy Spirit bestows the forgiveness of sins, by the ministry of the priest, upon those who, having sinned after Baptism, confess their sins with true repentance, and grace is given to amend their lives thereafter.
Holy Unction is a Sacrament in which the priests of the Church anoint the sick with oil, for the healing of the infirmities of their souls, and if it should please God, those of their bodies also.
The efficacy of the Sacraments depends upon the promise and appointment of God; nevertheless, they benefit only those who receive them worthily with faith, and with due preparation and disposition of mind.
6. Holy Scripture. The Scriptures are writings inspired by God, and given to the Church for her instruction and edification. The Church is therefore the custodian and the only Divinely appointed interpreter of Holy Scripture.
7. Tradition. The Apostolic and Ecclesiastical Traditions received from the seven General Councils and the early Fathers of the Church may not be rejected; but are to be received and obeyed as being both agreeable to Holy Scripture and to that Authority with which Christ endowed His Church. Matters of discipline and ceremonial do not rank on the same level with matters of Faith and Morals, but may be altered from time to time and from place to place by the Authority of the Church according as the welfare and greater devotion of the faithful may be furthered thereby.
8. The Communion of the Saints. There is a Communion of Saints in the Providence of God, wherein the souls of the righteous men of all ages are united with Christ in the bond of faith and love. Wherefore it is pleasing to God, and profitable to men, to honor the Saints and to invoke them in prayer; and also to pray for the faithful departed.
9. Religious Symbols. The relics and representations of the Saints are worthy of honor, as are also all other religious emblems; that our minds may be encouraged to devotion and to imitation of the deeds of the just. Honor shown to such objects is purely relative, and in no way implies a confusion of the symbols with the thing signified.
10. Rites and Ceremonies. It is the duty of all Christians to join in the worship of the Church, especially in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, in accordance with our Lord’s express command; and to conform to the ceremonies prescribed by holy Tradition for the greater dignity of that Sacrifice and for the edification of the faithful.
11. The Moral Law. All Christians are bound to observe the moral law contained in the Ten Commandments of the Old Testament, developed with greater strictness in the New, founded upon the law of nature and charity, and defining our duty to God and to man. The laws of the Church are also to be obeyed, as proceeding from that Authority which Christ has committed to her for the instruction and salvation of His people.
12. The Monastic Estate. The monastic life, duly regulated according to the laws of the Church, is a salutary institution in strict accord with the Holy Scriptures; and is full of profit to them who, after being carefully tried and examined, make full proof of their calling thereto.
1. Head of the Church. The Foundation Head and Supreme Pastor and Bishop of the Church is our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, from Whom all Bishops and Pastors derive their spiritual powers and jurisdiction.
2. Obedience. By the laws and institution of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospel, all Christians owe obedience and submission in spiritual things to them who have rule and authority within the Church.
3. Ministerial Authority. Our Lord Jesus Christ did not commit rule and authority within the Church to all the faithful indiscriminately, but only to the Apostles and to their lawful successors in due order.
4.Apostolic Succession. The only lawful successors of the Apostles are the Orthodox and Catholic Bishops, united by profession of the self-same Belief, participation in the same Sacraments, and mutual recognition and Intercommunion. The Bishops of the Church, being true successors of the Apostles, are by Divine Right and appointment the rulers of the Church.
In virtue of this appointment, each individual Bishop is supreme and independent in that part of the Church which has been committed to his care, so long as he remains in Faith and Communion with the united company of Catholic Bishops, who cannot exclude any from the Church, save only them who stray from the path of virtue or err in Faith.
By virtue of this same Divine appointment, the supreme Authority over the whole Church on earth belongs to the collective Orthodox and Catholic Episcopate. They alone form the highest tribunal in spiritual matters, from whose united judgment there can be no appeal; so that it is unlawful for any single Bishop, or any smaller group of Bishops apart from them, or for any secular power or state, to usurp this authority, or for any individual Christian to substitute his own private judgment for that interpretation of Scripture or Authority which is approved by the Church.
5. Church Authority. The collective body of the Orthodox and Catholic Episcopate, united by profession of the Faith, by the Sacraments, and by mutual recognition and actual Intercommunion, is the source and depository of all order, authority and jurisdiction in the Church, and is the center of visible Catholic Unity; so that no Pope, Patriarch or Bishop, or any number of Bishops separated from this united body can possess any authority or jurisdiction whatsoever.
The authority of this collective body is equally binding, however it may be expressed: whether by a General Council or by the regular and ordinary consultation and agreement of the Bishops themselves.
It is an act of schism to appeal from the known judgment of the Orthodox and Catholic Episcopate, however it may have been ascertained; or to appeal from any dogmatic decree of any General Council even though such appeal be to a future Council. For the Episcopate, being a continuation of the Apostolate, is clearly a Divine institution, and its authority is founded in Divine Right. But General Councils are not of Scriptural promise of Divine appointment; and so the Episcopate having clearly the Scriptural promise of Divine guidance into all Truth, cannot be hampered in the exercise of its authority by the necessity of assembling a General Council which may obviously be rendered impossible through natural circumstances.
There have been seven General Councils only, which are recognized by the whole of Christendom, held respective in Nicea (AD-325), Constantinople (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople (553), Constantinople (680), and Nicea (787). At no other Councils was the entire body of the Orthodox and Catholic Episcopate representatively assembled; and the decrees and pronouncements of no others must of themselves be accepted as binding upon the conscience of the faithful.
The Authority of the Church can never be in abeyance, even though a General Council cannot be assembled. It is equally to be submitted to and obeyed in whatever way it may be exercised, and although it may be exercised only through the ordinary administration of their respective jurisdictions by individual Bishops.
6. Hierarchy. All patriarchs, archbishops, and metropolitans (that is to say, all Bishops who exercise any authority over other Bishops owe that authority solely to the appointment or general consent of the Orthodox and Catholic Episcopate; nor can they ever cease from owing obedience to the collective body of the Episcopate in all matters concerning Faith and Morals.
7. The Five Patriarchates. There are five Patriarchates, which ought to be united and form the supreme authority in the administration and government of the Holy Catholic Church. These are Jerusalem, Antioch, Rome, Alexandria and Constantinople. Unfortunately, owing to dispute and differences on the one hand, and to the lust for power and supremacy and domination on the other, the Patriarchs are not at present in Communion; and the welfare of Christendom is jeopardized by their unedifying quarrels, which, we pray, may soon have an end.